A commentary is essential to linking the results together, rather than just displaying isolated and unconnected charts and figures. It can be quite difficult to find a good balance between the results and the discussion section, because some findings, especially in a quantitative or descriptive experiment , will fall into a grey area.
Try to avoid repeating yourself too often. It is best to try to find a middle path, where you give a general overview of the data and then expand on it in the discussion - you should try to keep your own opinions and interpretations out of the results section, saving that for the discussion later on.
This is where you elaborate on your findings, and explain what you found, adding your own personal interpretations. Ideally, you should link the discussion back to the introduction, addressing each point individually.
In keeping with the hourglass principle, you can expand on the topic later in the conclusion. The conclusion is where you build on your discussion and try to relate your findings to other research and to the world at large. In a short research paper, it may be a paragraph or two, or even a few lines. In a dissertation, it may well be the most important part of the entire paper - not only does it describe the results and discussion in detail, it emphasizes the importance of the results in the field, and ties it in with the previous research.
Some research papers require a recommendations section, postulating the further directions of the research, as well as highlighting how any flaws affected the results. In this case, you should suggest any improvements that could be made to the research design. No paper is complete without a reference list , documenting all the sources that you used for your research. This should be laid out according to APA , MLA or other specified format, allowing any interested researcher to follow up on the research.
One habit that is becoming more common, especially with online papers, is to include a reference to your own paper on the final page. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Jun 5, Parts of a Research Paper.
Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level.
No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: The list of abbreviation contains all the abbreviations used in the body text of the dissertation, listed in an alphabetical order. If the list is less than a page, it can be places on the left-hand page next to the first page of text. The body matter contains the main text of the dissertation. It is commonly divided into chapters, which are often but not necessarily of approximately the same length.
Each chapter title should provide a reasonable clue to the contents of the chapter. Choose short title chapters; in case this is not possible, consider having shorter versions to be used in the Table of Contents and as running heads. The Introduction often includes a literature overview, where the author provides short summaries of works relevant for the topic.
The goal with this exercise is twofold: The exact structure of the middle chapters may vary, depending on the scientific field. Dissertations in other fields may include one or more chapters on the theory and data. In some dissertations, the middle chapters are journal articles where the doctoral candidate is a first author. This model has certain disadvantages.
Firstly, the dissertation cannot be easily published as a book later on. It summarizes the conclusions of the scientific investigation, the solutions to the problems stated in the beginning, suggestions for future research, and practical implications of the findings.
This chapter should be relatively short and preferably written in a way that it can stand alone. Avoid copy-pasting sentences from the Abstract and the Introduction. Long chapters can be divided into sections, which can be further divided into subsections and sub-subsections. When a chapter is divided in sections, there should be at least two of them. Just one section in a chapter is illogical and asymmetric — you should not have any sections at all in such case.
The same applies to subsections and sub-subsections. Numbering the sections and subsections in a chapter provides an easy way for cross-referencing. The most common numbering system is the multiple numeration system , where the number of each division is preceded by the number s of the higher division s. For instance, the number 3. The contents of the back matter are generally supplementary and often non-essential. The back matter of a dissertation comprises the following parts:.
The material found in the appendix is not essential to the dissertation, but can be helpful for the reader who seeks further information. The appendix should not be a repository of raw data that the author has not been able to work into the main text.
If there are two or more appendices, they are designated by letters: Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. The notes section must be arranged by chapters, with chapter numbers and even chapter titles serving as section titles.
A reference list includes all sources cited in the work. A bibliography contains all sources the author has consulted, including sources that are not cited in the work: No matter whether you have a Reference List or a Bibliography, make sure that all works cited in the text are included there.
There is nothing worse than searching for a cited article in the back matter and not finding it there. Your email address will not be published. English Language Help Desk. The components of a doctoral dissertation and their order By Marina Pantcheva Do acknowledgements follow or precede the table of contents? The front matter includes in this order: This may look like this: Dedication optional On the dedication page the author names the person s for whom the book is written. Examples of a dedication are: Avoid over-generalizing, and reference the research findings of others to support why you think this will work C.
Give enough information so that others can follow your procedure, and can replicate it and hopefully come up with the same findings and conclusions as you did! Develop your argument based upon your findings. While the data may read for itself, you will need to interpret.
Restate and summarize your findings and discussion either in order to simply complexity or to provide a summary for those who skip to it! A research paper is not an essay, an editorial, or a story. All assertions of fact must be documented. Be careful of any generalizations that you make. Strive to be value-free in your inquiry. Review our Guide on the Scientific Method.
A good thesis is specific to the facts being discussed and shows the precise relationship among them. If the thesis makes as much sense for a paper on the French Revolution as for one on the spread of VCRs (e.g., “the world is always changing”), it is too vague.
Upon the recommendation of the thesis defense panel and the permission of the student, a thesis may be added to OhioLINK’s Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center (ETD). If the thesis is approved for inclusion in the ETD, the student will submit it online with the help of the Maly Library staff.
With a good understanding of the elements of a successful research paper, the process can be made a whole lot easier and simpler. A Successful Research Paper is a SMART one A successful research paper fulfills the objective of increasing readers' knowledge of a . The Elements of a Five Chapter Thesis. Chapter I - Examines the elements found in the Introductory Chapter of a thesis. Chapter II - Overviews the Literature Review. Chapter III - Insight into the complex world of reseach methodology. Chapter IV - Provides the elements necessary to present a complete Findings or Results section.
Year 7 ict homework help.. order of thesis and paper elements So my timetable for this year is looking pretty empty. which would be great if i knew i didn't have to fill the empty with dissertation 2 page essay on the bill of rights. The title of the thesis or dissertation in all capital letters and centered 2″ below the top of the page. Your name, centered 1″ below the title. .