If the magma reaches the surface of the earth it is guaranteed to be cooler, more volatile rich, and more silica rich which will make it more viscous and explosive. Before the eruption, there are three recorded eruptions dated using the radiocarbon method.
All of three of these eruptions have a relatively unknown magnitude. All of them consisted of a central vent eruption, and explosive eruption, while the first two also had pyroclastic flow. Given these dates of eruption, the three major dormancy periods prior to were approximately years, years, and years.
Mount Tambora is still considered an active volcano today, and since its eruption there has been three dates of recorded activity. In both and there was an eruption rated a 2 on the volcanic explosivity index VEI. The second of these eruptions involved lava flow and lava dome extrusion, while the first only had a central vent eruption and an explosive eruption. The third and latest eruption occurred in which was rated a 0 on the VEI and involved a central vent eruption and lava flow.
Given these dates of eruption, the three major dormancy periods after were approximately 4 years, 61 years, and 87 years. By April 10th , the eruptions had increased enormously in magnitude and flames emerged from the volcano reaching 40km high.
The entirety of Mount Tambora was covered in flowing liquid fire. Additionally pumice stones rained down with diameters as large as 20cm. Following this devastating eruption, there were smaller explosions, declining in intensity over the next few months. The recorded date of the final eruption is July 15 In order to understand the materials ejected from the volcano, it is necessary to understand the different types of volcanic materials: Lava flows depend on the silica content, metal oxides, and the temperature of the lava.
A pyroclastic flow is a combination of gases, ash, and rock that flow down the volcano at extremely high speeds ex. Volcanic gases consist of water, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide and may be a part of magma. Over cubic kilometres of magma was ejected from the volcano, which is the equivalent to Hiroshima bombs10, along with two hundred million tonnes of sulphur dioxide.
The height of the eruption column reached the stratosphere, which is at an altitude of approximately 43km.
Some of the coarser ash particles fell to the ground in the next few weeks, but the finer ash particles remained in the air from anywhere of a few months to several years. On the volcanic explosivity index, the blast was a 7, which is classified as super-colossal. The explosion caused tsunamis with heights up to m and extensive land and property damage.
The entire village of Tambora was completely wiped out. The leading cause of death however, was indirectly caused by the blast.
Thick ash from the volcano covered land and destroyed all crops, livestock, and clean water. From famine came disease which was also responsible for many deaths. The total number of fatalities is estimated at around people. The eruption had a vast variety of effects the globe, most of which were negative. It was not until that an explanation for the global cooling was established. William J Humphreys, who was an American climatologist proposed that the eruption was strong enough to blow ash and gases into the stratosphere.
Once in the stratosphere, winds blew all of the particles and gas all over the world in the span of the next year. Evidence of this could be seen in the brown and red snow that fell in Hungary and Italy, which was thought to be due to the volcanic ash in the atmosphere. In France and Germany, grape and corn crops were almost entirely wiped out. In China, the rice production was at an all time low and summer snowfall was reported in a variety of places. The overall effect of these crop failures was a widespread famine, especially in Europe, and epidemic outbreaks.
It is important to note that prior to eruption, Europe was still recovering from the Napoleonic wars. This caused the eruption to have a significantly larger effect because many countries were already in a fragile condition. Outsourcing homework, getting a proper sample paper from an education service that has an essay writer, does not cost much, although it takes a load off your shoulders. This affordable help is the thing we provide to our customers — deliver well researched, scrupulously composed assignments and texts to people requiring an advice.
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